Dialogue - Persian

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Vocabulary

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باشه baasheh ok
گران geraan expensive
تاریخ انقضا taarikh-e enqezaa expiration date
شیر shir milk
برای اطمینان baraay-e etminaan to ensure
آوردن avardan to bring
برنج berenj rice
به جای beh jaay-e instead of
بس بودن bas boodan to be enough
بیشتر bishtar more

Lesson Notes

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Grammar

The Focus of This Lesson Is Imperative Form

این برنج خیلی خوبیه (خوبی‌ است ) پنج کیلو بگیریم؟
ein berenj-e kheili khoobiyeh(khoobi ast) panj kiloo begirim?

"It's very good rice! Let's get five kilos?"


In this lesson, we will learn:

  1. The imperative forms of verbs

1.The imperative form of verbs in Persian


The imperative mood is made from the subjunctive mood, with the difference that the ending for the second person singular is omitted. In Persian, all six persons have an imperative form.

Present form of the imperative:

It is made by adding بِ, be to the present stem of the verb:

بِ, Be + present stem = the present imperative

Example: the present stem of نوشتن, nevestan, "to write" is نویس, nevis, "write." So the imperative in the present tense is formed like this:

بِ, Be +  نویس, nevis + personal ending (م٫-٫د٫یم٫ید٫ند )  

Please see the chart below for all six persons. Remember in the imperative form the ending for second person singular is omitted.

Persian

Romanization

English

بنویسم

benevisam

"I may write."

بنویس

benevis

"Write!"

بنویسد

benevisad

"He (She) may write."

بنویسیم   

benevisim

"We may write."

بنویسید  

benevisid

"You may write."

بنویسند

benevisand

"They may write."

Sample sentences

Persian

Romanization

English

 نام خود را بنویس.

Naame khod raa benevis.

"Write your name."

من باید یک کتاب بنویسم.

Man baayad yek ketaab benevisam

"I must write a book."

آنها باید انشاء بنویسند.

Aanhaa  bayad enshaa benevisand.

"They must write essays."

Negative form:

The negative form of present subjunctive (and consequently, present imperative) is made by replacing  بِ, be- with نَ, na-.

Let's see the some examplesin negative form:

Persian

Romanization

English

  نام خود  را  ننویس.

Naame khod raa nanevis.

"Do not write your name."

اون (آن) لباسو (را) نخر!

Oon (aan) lebaas-o (raa) nakahr!

"Don't buy that shirt."

اینقدر شیرینی جات نخور!

Inghadr shirini-jaat nakhoor!

"Don't eat this many sweets!"

Note: When we use an auxiliary verb like باید baayad, which means "should," "must" or "have to," the main verb's subjunctive form is used. And for negating, we add na to باید and it changes to نباید.

Examples:

Persian

Romanization

English

من نباید بهش (به او) زنگ بزنم!

Man nabaayad behesh (beh oo) zang bezanam.

"I shouldn't call him."

سارا نباید انقدر بازی کنه (کند).

Saaraa nabaayad enghadr baazi koneh.

"Sarah shouldn't be playing this much!"

Examples from the Dialogue

  1. می خوای(می‌ خواهی‌) بیشتر بگیریم؟
    mikhaai(mikhaahi)bishtar begirim?

    "Do you want to get more? "
  2. فقط شیر کم چربی‌ بیار(بیاور).
    faqat shir-e kam charbi biaar(biaavar).

    "Just bring low-fat milk."

Sample Sentences


  1. امروز باید خیلی برنج بخرم.
    emrooz baayad kheili beranj bekharam.

    "Today I should buy a lot of rice."
  2. باشه با هم بریم مدرسه.
    baasheh baa ham berim madreseh.

    "Okay, let's go to school together."
  3.  ما نباید اجناس گران بخریم.
    maa nabaayad ajnaas-e geraan bekharim

    "We should not buy expensive goods."

Cultural Insights

Staple food in Iran


In Iran, rice and bread are the most eaten foods. There are various kinds of breads that people eat with their breakfast. A typical and simple breakfast is sweetened black tea with bread, which can be lavash (thin flat bread) or sangak (bread cooked over hot stones) with feta cheese. For lunch, rice is a must. A typical lunch is long grain, cooked rice with saffron or zereshk (barberry) and a lamb meat stew, lamb kebab, chicken kebab, or fish with a salty yogurt drink (flat or sparkling), pickles, salads, and herbs. Dinner is lighter than lunch, but still it can be eaten with rice or bread, though in smaller quantities. Iranian never eat rice for breakfast. Remember that Iran is a tapestry and a large country, so people from different backgrounds have different diets. That said, "Cholo Kabab," which is charcoal-roasted minced beef or lamb with roasted tomato and rice and saffron, without any doubt, is the national food of Iran.

Useful expression

  1. کم بخور همیشه بخور.
    kam bekhor hamisheh bekhor.

    "Eat less, eat always."

This sentence is a zarb ol masal (ضرب المثل), or "expression." It's used to emphasize not overeating. Our ancestors recommended to stop eating a few bites before we feel totally full to ensure good health.

Lesson Transcript

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INTRODUCTION
John: Hi everyone, and welcome back to PersianPod101.com. This is Beginner Season 1 Lesson 11 - Getting Groceries in Iran. John here.
Mehrnaz: سلام (salaam), I'm Mehrnaz.
John: In this lesson, you’ll learn about the imperative form: Want + to (main verb). The conversation takes place at a supermarket.
Mehrnaz: It's between Mr. Ahmadi and Shirin Hedayat.
John: The speakers are family members; therefore, they’ll speak informal Persian. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
شیرین هدایت : این برنج خیلی خوبیه (خوبی‌ است ) پنج کیلو بگیریم؟
آقای احمدی: می خوای(می‌ خواهی‌) بیشتر بگیریم؟
شیرین هدایت : نه فعلا پنج کیلو بسه(بس است)کیلویی نه هزار و پونصد(پانصد) تومنه(تومان است).
آقای احمدی: گرونه (گران است)
شیرین هدایت : شیر یادم رفت.
آقای احمدی: من می رم(می روم) می‌‌آرم(می‌ آورم).
شیرین هدایت : تاریخ انقضاشو(انقضایش را) حتما چک کن.
آقای احمدی: باشه (باشد).
شیرین هدایت : فقط شیر کم چربی‌ بیار(بیاور).
John: Listen to the conversation one time slowly.
شیرین هدایت : این برنج خیلی خوبیه (خوبی‌ است ) پنج کیلو بگیریم؟
آقای احمدی: می خوای(می‌ خواهی‌) بیشتر بگیریم؟
شیرین هدایت : نه فعلا پنج کیلو بسه(بس است)کیلویی نه هزار و پونصد(پانصد) تومنه(تومان است).
آقای احمدی: گرونه (گران است)
شیرین هدایت : شیر یادم رفت.
آقای احمدی: من می رم(می روم) می‌‌آرم(می‌ آورم).
شیرین هدایت : تاریخ انقضاشو(انقضایش را) حتما چک کن.
آقای احمدی: باشه (باشد).
شیرین هدایت : فقط شیر کم چربی‌ بیار(بیاور).
John: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Shirin Hedayat: It's very good rice! Let's get five kilos.
Mr. Ahmadi: Do you want to get more?
Shirin Hedayat: No, 5 kilos will do for now! It's 9500 Tomans a kilo!
Mr. Ahmadi: Pricey.
Shirin Hedayat: I forgot the milk.
Mr. Ahmadi: I'll go get it.
Shirin Hedayat: Make sure to check the expiration date.
Mr. Ahmadi: Ok.
Shirin Hedayat: Just bring low-fat milk.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
John: Mehrnaz, what are Iran’s staple foods?
Mehrnaz: In Iran, rice and bread are the most commonly eaten foods.
John: I didn’t know that Iran also consumes bread.
Mehrnaz: There are various kinds of bread that people eat with breakfast. For example, a typical, simple breakfast is sweetened black tea with bread. The bread might be lavash, which is thin flat bread, or sangak, which is bread cooked over hot stones, with cheese.
John: When do people eat rice?
Mehrnaz: For lunch, rice is a must. A typical lunch is long grain rice with saffron or zereshk (barberry) and a lamb meat stew, lamb kebab, chicken kebab, or fish with a salty yogurt drink, pickles, salads, and herbs.
John: I see. So what do you usually have for dinner?
Mehrnaz: Dinner is lighter than lunch, but still it can be eaten with rice or bread, but in smaller quantities. However, remember that Iran is a large country, so people from different regions have different diets.
John: Oh okay. Does Iran have a national food or dish?
Mehrnaz: Without any doubt "Cholo Kabab" is the national food of Iran.
John: That is charcoal-roasted minced beef or lamb with roasted tomato and rice and saffron.
Mehrnaz: Here is an old idiom, کم بخور همیشه بخور.
John: Which means, "Eat less, eat always.”
Mehrnaz: In other words, you should stop eating a few bites before you feel totally full to ensure good health.
John: Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
John: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Mehrnaz: برنج [natural native speed]
John: rice
Mehrnaz: برنج[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: برنج [natural native speed]
John: Next we have..
Mehrnaz: باشه [natural native speed]
John: ok
Mehrnaz: باشه[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: باشه [natural native speed]
John: Next we have..
Mehrnaz: گران [natural native speed]
John: expensive
Mehrnaz: گران[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: گران [natural native speed]
John: Next we have..
Mehrnaz: بس بودن [natural native speed]
John: to be enough
Mehrnaz: بس بودن[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: بس بودن [natural native speed]
John: Next we have..
Mehrnaz: برای اطمینان [natural native speed]
John: to ensure
Mehrnaz: برای اطمینان[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: برای اطمینان [natural native speed]
John: Next we have..
Mehrnaz: آوردن [natural native speed]
John: to bring
Mehrnaz: آوردن[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: آوردن [natural native speed]
John: Next we have..
Mehrnaz: تاریخ انقضا [natural native speed]
John: expiration date
Mehrnaz: تاریخ انقضا[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: تاریخ انقضا [natural native speed]
John: Next we have..
Mehrnaz: شیر [natural native speed]
John: milk
Mehrnaz: شیر [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: شیر [natural native speed]
John: Next we have..
Mehrnaz: به جای [natural native speed]
John: instead of
Mehrnaz: به جای[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: به جای [natural native speed]
John: And last..
Mehrnaz: بیشتر [natural native speed]
John: more
Mehrnaz: بیشتر[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: بیشتر [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
John: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is..
Mehrnaz: باشه
John: meaning "Ok"
Mehrnaz: Literally, باشه, baasheh means "so be it.” We use باشه, baasheh ("Ok") whenever we want to show that we agree on a matter with others. It is used exactly as “Ok” is used in English. We also use the international word “OK” in normal conversation.
John: Can you give us an example using the Persian word?
Mehrnaz: Sure. For example, you can say.. باشه من هم میام.
John: ..which means "Okay, I'm coming too."
John: Okay, what's the next phrase?
Mehrnaz: برای اطمینان
John: meaning "to ensure"
Mehrnaz: Let’s break this phrase down: برای اطمینان, baraay-e etminaan, is "to make sure", برای, baraaye, means "for," اطمینان, etminaan, "making sure.”
John: This phrase is used whenever we want to emphasize the security of a matter. It can be insurance for a tangible thing, like a car, or a non-tangible thing, like someone’s health. Mehrnaz, can you give us an example using this phrase?
Mehrnaz: Sure. For example, you can say.. برای اطمینان پول کافی در سفر همراه داشته باشید
John: .. which means "Just make sure to have enough money with you when traveling."
John: Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

John: In this lesson, you'll learn about the imperative form.
Mehrnaz: The imperative form is made from the subjunctive form, with the difference being the ending for the second person singular is omitted.
John: In Persian, all six person pronouns have an imperative form. How is the present form created?
Mehrnaz: It is made by adding بِ, be to the present stem of the verb.
John: Could you give us an example?
Mehrnaz: Sure. The present stem of نوشتن, nevestan, “to write” is نویس, nevis, “write.” So the imperative in the present tense is formed like this: بِ, Be + نویس, nevis + a personal ending
John: Let’s conjugate the verb “to write” for all six person pronouns
Mehrnaz: First we have بنویسم
John: meaning “I may write”
Mehrnaz: the second person singular is بنویس
John: meaning “Write!”
Mehrnaz: بنویسد
John: “He (She) may write.”
Mehrnaz: بنویسیم
John: “We may write.”
Mehrnaz: بنویسید
John: “You may write.”
Mehrnaz: بنویسند
John: “They may write.”
Mehrnaz: Here are some sample sentences نام خود را بنویس.
John: which means, “Write your name.”
Mehrnaz: من باید یک کتاب بنویسم.
John: “I must write a book.” How about the negative forms?
Mehrnaz: The negative form of present subjunctive (and consequently, present imperative) is made by replacing بِ, be- with نَ, na-.
John: Could you give us some sample sentences?
Mehrnaz: نام خود را ننویس.
John: meaning “Do not write your name.”
Mehrnaz: اینقدر شیرینی جات نخور!
John: “Don’t eat this many sweets!”
Mehrnaz: Remember that when we use an auxiliary verb like باید baayad, which means “should,” “must,” or “have to,” the main verb’s subjunctive form is used. And for negating, we add na to باید and it changes to نباید. For example, من نباید بهش (به او) زنگ بزنم!
John: which means “I shouldn’t call him.”
Mehrnaz: سارا نباید انقدر بازی کنه (کند).
John: “Sarah shouldn’t be playing this much!”

Outro

John: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Mehrnaz: خدا حافظ (khodahafez)