Dialogue - Persian

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Vocabulary

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حذف کردن hazf kardan to drop
شلوغ sholoogh crowded
دیروز dirooz yesterday
سخت sakht hard, difficult
دانشگاه daaneshgaah university
زمان بردن zamaan bordan to take time
جای پارک jaay-e paark parking space
باقیمانده baaghimaandeh remaining
چرت زدن chort zadan to take a nap, to doze off

Lesson Notes

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Grammar

The Focus Of This Lesson Is Verbs: Past Tense and "Must"

چرا؟ من می تونم (می توانم) به تو کمک کنم.
cheraa? man mitoonam (mitavaanam) beh to komak konam.
"Why? I can help you."


In this lesson, we will learn how to:

  1. Use the Past Tense
  2. Use The Verb "Must" in Persian

1. Past Tense


There are no regular or irregular verbs in Persian, unlike English language. To make a past tense from infinitive verbs, see the table below.

In Persian all the infinitives end in -tan(تن) or -dan(دن) .

The past tense is made simply by removing the -an(ن) from the infinitive and adding past endings. Personal endings for past tense are:

Person

Persian

Romanization

Example in Persian

Romanization

English

1st sing.

م

m

رفتم

raftam

"I went"

2nd sing.

ی

i

رفتی

rafti

"You went"

3rd sing.

N/A

N/A

رفت

raft

"He (She) went"

1st pl.

یم

eim

رفتیم

raftim

"We went"

2nd pl.

ید

eid

رفتید

raftid

"You went"

3rd pl.

ند

and

رفتند

raftand

"They went"

Note: the singular third person doesn't get a personal ending.

Conjugation chart

Verb "to go", رفتن, raftan

Persian

Romanization

English

رفتم

Raftam

"I went"

رفتی

rafti

"You went"

رفت

raft

"He or She went"

رفتیم

Raftim

"We went"

رفتید

raftid

"You went" plural

رفتند

raftand

"They went"

Verb "to tell", گفتن, goftan

Persian

Romanization

English

گفتم

goftam

I told

گفتی‌

gofti

You told

گفت

goft

he(She) told

گفتیم

goftim

We told

گفتید

goftid

You told

گفتند

goftand

They told

Verb "to give", دادن, daadan

Persian

Romanization

English

دادم

daadam

I gave

دادی

daadi

You gave

داد

daad

He(She) gave

دادیم

daadim

We gave

دادید

daadid

You gave

دادند

daadand

They gave

Verb "to arrive", رسیدن, residan

Persian

Romanization

English

رسیدم

residam

I arrived

رسیدی

residi

You arrived

رسید

resid

He(She) arrived

رسیدیم

residim

We arrived

رسیدید

residid

You arrived

رسیدند

residand

They arrived

Verb "to eat", خوردن, khordan

Persian

Romanization

English

خوردم

khordam

I ate

خوردی

khordi

You ate

خورد

khord

He(She) ate

خوردیم

khordim

We ate

خوردید

khordid

You ate

خوردند

khordand

They ate

Verb "to do", کردن, kardan

Persian

Romanization

English

کردم

kardam

I did

کردی

kardi

You did

کرد

kard

He(She) did

کردیم

kardim

We did

کردید

kardid

You did

کردند

kardand

They did

Verb "to see", دیدن, didan

Persian

Romanization

English

دیدم

didam

I saw

دیدی

didi

You saw

دید

did

He(She)saw

دیدیم

didim

We saw

دیدید

didid

You saw

دید‌ند

didand

They saw

Verb "to take", بردن, bordan

Persian

Romanization

English

بردم

bordam

I took

بردی

bordi

You took

برد

bord

He(She) took

بردیم

bordim

We took

بردید

bordid

You took

بردند

bordand

They took

Examples

Persian

Romanization

English

این امتحان سخت بود.

in emtehaan sakht bood.

"This exam was difficult."

پدر بعد از ناهار نیم ساعت چرت زد.

pedar b'ad az naahaar nim saa'at chort zad.

"Father took a nap after lunch for half an hour."

مادر بعد از خرید به خانه برگشت.

Maadar b'ad az kharid beh khaaneh bargasht.

"Mother got back home after shopping."

2. The Verb "Must" in Persian


Baayad, باید, ("must") can be considered an adverb or an auxiliary verb.

There is no conjugation for the verb باید , baayad, "must."

We commonly use this sentence pattern:

Subject + baayad +object + main verb  

Note: Sometimes we drop subject because the suffix at the end of verb represents the subject. So, in order to make the sentence shorter, we can drop the subject and start the sentence with باید, baayad ("must"). Just like the first sample sentence below, م, m is the suffix for the main verb ببینم, bebinam ("to see by me"), so we know the subject is من , man, ("I").

Sample sentences

  1. باید هر روز تو را ببینم.
    Baayad har rooz to raa bebinam.
    "I must see you every day."
  2. من باید به ایران برگردم
    man baayad beh iraan bargardam
    "I must go back to Iran."
  3. شما باید به خانه بروید.
    shomaa baayad beh khaaneh beravid
    "You must go home."

Examples from the Dialogue

  1. نمی تونم (نمی توانم) سر وقت به کلاس برسم چون کلاس خیلی‌ زود شروع میشه(میشود).
    nemitoonam(nemitavaanam) sar-e
    vaght beh kelaas beresam chon kelaas kheili zood shoroo misheh(mishavad).
    "I can't get to the class on time because class starts too early."
  2. می تونی(می توانی)با ماشین خودت بری(بروی) تا زودتر برسی.
    mitooni(mitavaani) baa maashin-e khodet beri(beravi) taa zoodtar beresi.

    "You can go with your car to get there earlier."

Sample Sentences


  1. دیروز هوا گرم بود.
    dirooz havaa garm bood.

    "Yesterday the weather was warm."
  2. من به مدرسه رفتم.
    man beh madreseh raftam.

    "I went to school."
  3. پدر شام خورد و خوابید.
    pedar shaam khord va khaabid.

    "Father dined and slept."

Cultural Insights

Heavy traffic in Tehran


With 8.2 million permanent residents and a couple of millions visitors every day, Tehran is one of the busiest and most polluted cities in the Middle East. In order to get to work people must wake up as early as they can. The traffic control plan is one of the most effective solutions for Tehran's heavy traffic and air pollution. It was introduced in late 80's, and Tehran's traffic plan as well as new metro lines have helped a lot to improve Tehran's heavy traffic problem. Based on traffic plan of Tehran, during rush hours some streets are closed to private cars but are open to public transportation vehicles, such as buses and taxis. Furthermore, people receive free metro tickets to encourage them to ride on buses or metro trains. There are free bicycles for those who prefer to ride a bicycle to work, and the government also provides intensive and lower taxes on hybrid cars. Billboard ads and TV programs inform people of the danger of air pollution in the city, and statistics on the quality of air is provided on a daily basis. As a result of these efforts in the past few years, today Tehran enjoys better air quality. While it's the best and Tehran remains one of the most polluted cities of Asia, little by little it is improving.

Useful expression

  1. طرح ترافیک
    tarh-e terafic

    "traffic plan"

Lesson Transcript

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INTRODUCTION
John: Hi everyone, and welcome to PersianPod101.com. This is Beginner Season 1, Lesson 1 - Talking About School in Persian. John here.
Mehrnaz: سلام (salaam), I'm Mehrnaz.
John: In this lesson, you’ll learn about past tense verbs and "must." The conversation takes place at a university campus.
Mehrnaz: It's between Farhad and Fariba.
John: The speakers are classmates; therefore, they’ll speak informal Persian. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
فریبا: کلاس دیروزت چطور بود؟
فرهاد: بد نبود ولی فکر کنم حذفش کنم.
فریبا: چرا؟ من می تونم (می توانم) به تو کمک کنم.
فرهاد: نمی تونم (نمی توانم) سر وقت به کلاس برسم چون کلاس خیلی‌ زود شروع میشه(میشود).
فریبا: می تونی(می توانی)با ماشین خودت بری(بروی) تا زودتر برسی.
فرهاد: نه, یه (یک) ساعت زمان می بره (می‌ برد) جای پارک پیدا کنم.
فریبا: و نیم ساعت باقیمونده رو (باقیمانده را) هم باید چرت بزنی.
John: Listen to the conversation one time slowly.
فریبا: کلاس دیروزت چطور بود؟
فرهاد: بد نبود ولی فکر کنم حذفش کنم.
فریبا: چرا؟ من می تونم (می توانم) به تو کمک کنم.
فرهاد: نمی تونم (نمی توانم) سر وقت به کلاس برسم چون کلاس خیلی‌ زود شروع میشه(میشود).
فریبا: می تونی(می توانی)با ماشین خودت بری(بروی) تا زودتر برسی.
فرهاد: نه, یه (یک) ساعت زمان می بره (می‌ برد) جای پارک پیدا کنم.
فریبا: و نیم ساعت باقیمونده رو (باقیمانده را) هم باید چرت بزنی.
John: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Fariba: How was your class yesterday?
Farhad: Not bad, but I think I'll drop it.
Fariba: Why? I can help you.
Farhad: I can't get to the class on time because class starts too early.
Fariba: You can go with your car to get there earlier.
Farhad: No, it takes me an hour to find a parking space.
Fariba: And you must doze off the remaining half an hour too.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
John: From the dialogue, it sounds like Persian cities are pretty congested with traffic.
Mehrnaz: Yes, that’s right. Especially Tehran, which has around 8 million inhabitants and around 2 million visitors every day.
John: I’ve heard it’s one of the busiest and most polluted cities in the Middle East.
Mehrnaz: Yes, in order to get to work, people must wake up as early as they can.
John: However, I’ve also heard that Tehran has an effective traffic control plan.
Mehrnaz: Right, there’s a traffic plan, or in Persian طرح ترافیک (tarh-e terafic). It was introduced in the late 80s, and it, as well as new metro lines, has done a lot to improve Tehran's traffic problem.
John: Are there any measures aimed to improve the situation?
Mehrnaz: Yes, sometimes people receive free metro tickets to encourage them to ride buses or metro trains. There are free bicycles for those who prefer to ride a bicycle to work. The government also provides intensive and lower taxes on hybrid cars.
John: What about air pollution?
Mehrnaz: Billboard ads and TV programs inform people of the danger of air pollution in the city. Statistics on the quality of air is provided on a daily basis.
John: Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
John: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is...
Mehrnaz: حذف کردن [natural native speed]
John: to drop
Mehrnaz: حذف کردن[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: حذف کردن [natural native speed]
John: Next we have...
Mehrnaz: شلوغ [natural native speed]
John: crowded
Mehrnaz: شلوغ[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: شلوغ [natural native speed]
John: Next we have...
Mehrnaz: دانشگاه [natural native speed]
John: university
Mehrnaz: دانشگاه[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: دانشگاه [natural native speed]
John: Next we have...
Mehrnaz: جای پارک [natural native speed]
John: parking space
Mehrnaz: جای پارک[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: جای پارک [natural native speed]
John: Next we have...
Mehrnaz: چرت زدن [natural native speed]
John: to take a nap, to doze off
Mehrnaz: چرت زدن[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: چرت زدن [natural native speed]
John: Next we have...
Mehrnaz: دیروز [natural native speed]
John: yesterday
Mehrnaz: دیروز[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: دیروز [natural native speed]
John: Next we have...
Mehrnaz: سخت [natural native speed]
John: hard, difficult
Mehrnaz: سخت[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: سخت [natural native speed]
John: Next we have...
Mehrnaz: زمان بردن [natural native speed]
John: to take time
Mehrnaz: زمان بردن[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: زمان بردن [natural native speed]
John: And lastly...
Mehrnaz: باقیمانده [natural native speed]
John: remaining
Mehrnaz: باقیمانده[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Mehrnaz: باقیمانده [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
John: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first phrase is...
Mehrnaz: سخته
John: Meaning "It is hard."
Mehrnaz: Sakhteh, سخته is the short form of سخت است, sakht ast. Sakht means "hard," and ast means "is."
John: When do you use it?
Mehrnaz: We use this sentence when something is hard, either physically or mentally. For example, you can say این امتحان سخت بود
John: Meaning "This exam was difficult."
Mehrnaz: But, you can also say این چوب سخت است
John: Which means "This wood is hard."
Mehrnaz: Keep in mind that you can’t use this word when talking about non-solid objects. Instead, you should use the word سفت , seft. For example, کباب سفت بود
John: "The Kebab was hard."
Mehrnaz: You should use seft also for fruits, candies, muscles, and so on.
John: Okay, what's the next word?
Mehrnaz: چرت زدن
John: Meaning "to take a nap, to doze off."
Mehrnaz: Chort means "nap," and zadan means "to hit," to take," or "to do."
John: This is a colloquial form, and it can also mean “to doze off” when you're not actually taking a nap.
Mehrnaz: Remember that چرتی‌ , chorti is a synonym for “an opium addict.” That’s because opium addicts always look like they’re dozing off.
John: Can you give us an example using this phrase?
Mehrnaz: Sure. For example, you can say, پدر بعد از ناهار نیم ساعت چرت زد.
John: ...which means "Father took a nap after lunch for half an hour."
John: Okay, what's the next phrase?
Mehrnaz: زمان بردن
John: Meaning "to take time."
Mehrnaz: zaman means "time," and bordan means "to carry” or “to take."
John: We can use this phrase on two occasions: first, when something takes a long time to achieve or make, and second, when we want to indicate how long it takes to do, make, or build something.
Mehrnaz: In the second case, it doesn’t have to be a long time.
John: Can you give us some examples?
Mehrnaz: Sure. For example, you can say saakhtan-e in pol dah saal zaman bord
John: "Building this bridge took ten years.”
Mehrnaz: You can also say pokhtan-e berenj faghat bist daghigheh zaman mibarad
John: Meaning "Cooking rice just takes 20 minutes."
Mehrnaz: Here’s another example بدنسازی زمان می‌‌برد.
John: Which means "Bodybuilding takes time."
John: Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

John: In this lesson, you'll learn about past tense verbs and the pattern for "must." Let’s start with the past tense. First of all, there’s good news. There are no regular or irregular verbs in Persian, unlike English. How do we form the past tense?
Mehrnaz: In Persian, all the infinitives end in -tan(تن) or -dan(دن). In order to form the past tense, we have to remove -an (ن) from the infinitive and add the personal endings.
John: What are the personal endings? Let’s list them and show how they apply to a verb.
Mehrnaz: We’ll use the verb رفتن, raftan, meaning “to go.”
John: What’s the Persian for “I went?”
Mehrnaz: It’s رفتم, raftam. The ending is م, m.
John: How about “ you went?”
Mehrnaz: It’s رفتی, rafti. The ending is ی, i.
John: “He or she went?”
Mehrnaz: The third person singular doesn’t have any ending, so it’s simply رفت, raft.
John: “We went?”
Mehrnaz: رفتیم raftim. Here the ending is یم, eim.
John: “You went,” plural?
Mehrnaz: رفتید, raftid. Here the ending is ید, eid.
John: “They went?”
Mehrnaz: رفتند, raftand. Here the ending is ند, and.
John: So all we have to do is to remember these endings.
Mehrnaz: Right.
John: Listeners, in the lesson notes you can find more conjugated verbs, so be sure to check them out! Mehrnaz, could you give us a sample sentence with the past tense?
Mehrnaz: مادر بعد از خرید به خانه برگشت.
John: Which means “Mother got back home after shopping.”
Mehrnaz: And, we already saw other examples with the past tense. For example, این امتحان سخت بود.
John: Which means “This exam was difficult.” Ok, now let’s have a look at the verb “must.”
Mehrnaz: In Persian, that’s Baayad, باید,.
John: This can be considered an adverb or an auxiliary verb. Do we need to conjugate it?
Mehrnaz: There’s no conjugation for the verb باید , baayad. The most common sentence pattern is subject, followed by baayad, plus the object and the main verb.
John: In Persian, sometimes you can drop the subject because the suffix at the end of the verb represents the subject. Mehrnaz, could you give us an example?
Mehrnaz: باید هر روز تو را ببینم.
John: Meaning “I must see you every day.”
Mehrnaz: I didn’t state the subject من , man, “I,” as it was implied in the verb ببینم, bebinam.
John: Let’s give another couple of sample sentences.
Mehrnaz: من باید به ایران برگردم
John: “I must go back to Iran.”
Mehrnaz: شما باید به خانه بروید.
John: “You must go home.”

Outro

John: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Mehrnaz: خدا حافظ (khodahafez).