Vocabulary (Review)

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Lesson Transcript

Brandon: Hello listeners, I'm Brandon.
Mohammad: Hi everyone. I'm Mohammad.
Brandon: Welcome back to PersianPod101.com. This is Absolute Beginner, season 1, lesson 25 - Do You Remember the Persian Grammar You've Learned in this Series?
Mohammad: Brandon, we’ve reached the last lesson of the series! What are we learning?
Brandon: I can’t believe we’re already at the end! In this lesson, we'll review a few of the grammar points that we’ve covered in this series. These points are all gathered in a conversation we'll listen to, that happens in the street.
Mohammad: This conversation is between Sina, Arash, and Mahshid.
Brandon: And since they're friends, they'll use informal Persian.
Mohammad: So listeners, are you ready?
Brandon: So Mohammad, if someone wants to travel to the seaside in Iran, where should they go?
Mohammad: There is one sea in the north of Iran, and another one in the south. They're both very nice places.
Brandon: Can you tell us more about each one? The one in the north is called the Caspian Sea, right?
Mohammad: Yes, and one of its main attractions is the green fields and forests around it.
Brandon: It's also a good connection to other countries, isn't it? What about the sea in the south?
Mohammad: Well, it includes the Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf.
Brandon: What are the names of Iran's most famous islands, that you can find there?
Mohammad: They are named "Kish" and "Qeshm." They're good centers for aquatic sports and marine life.
Brandon: I’ve heard they have a really inviting atmosphere. Listeners, why not go to the seaside in Iran!
Mohammad: But first, let's master this lesson's vocab!
Brandon: Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. What’s the first one?
Mohammad: "maah-e aayande." It means "the next month."
Brandon: And what's the important point about it?
Mohammad: The fact that each word that makes it up has two meanings.
Brandon: Really? What are they?
Mohammad: "maah" means "month" and "moon." And "aayande" means "future," and can be used as the word "next" as well.
Brandon: Are there any other words for any of these meanings?
Mohammad: For "next" you may say other words like "ba'di."
Brandon: I see. And in this case the "month" and "next" come together.
Mohammad: Yes, and they become "maah-e aayande."
Brandon: One more time please.
Mohammad: "maah-e aayande" (pause).
Brandon: Our next phrase is an interjection.
Mohammad: Right. It's "che aali!".
Brandon: Which means "How great!" or "How fabulous!"
Mohammad: It should be said in an amazed tone.
Brandon: And if it's not?
Mohammad: It won't be natural. Or it may be considered as a lie.
Brandon: I guess that's because it's a reaction.
Mohammad: Yes, and it's towards something amazing.
Brandon: So, how do we say it, in order to sound right?
Mohammad: "che aali!" (pause), "che aali!"
Brandon: Alright. And finally, our last phrase is...?
Mohammad: "dars khoondan" meaning "to study."
Brandon: Is it a phrasal verb?
Mohammad: Yes, which includes one noun and a verb.
Brandon: Can we break this down?
Mohammad: Sure! "dars" is "lesson," and "khoondan" means "to read."
Brandon: But together they mean "to study." It makes sense. And what else is there to know about it?
Mohammad: Well, since it's a verb, it must have a tense.
Brandon: And I bet it's always at the end of a sentence, right? Let's repeat it one more time.
Mohammad: "dars khoondan" (pause), "dars khoondan."
Brandon: Perfect! Okay, now onto the grammar.

Lesson focus

Brandon: In this lesson, we're going to review a group of the grammar points that we learned during this series.
Mohammad: That's right. Like I always say, practice is the secret of success!
Brandon: I agree! So, the first rule that we're going to review is...?
Mohammad: It's how to make the negative form of a present tense verb.
Brandon: How do we do it?
Mohammad: We have to add the prefix "ne" before the present tense.
Brandon: For example, how do we say "I can't"?
Mohammad: "I can" was "mitoonam" or "mitavaanam" in Persian. We simply add "ne" to it, and it becomes "nemitoonam" or "nemitavaanam."
Brandon: How about the interrogative form that we had in the conversation?
Mohammad: In order to make it, we don't need to do anything, except to change our tone into a questioning tone.
Brandon: And how does a questioning tone sound?
Mohammad: It's a rising sound. We have to say the original sentence with this tone.
Brandon: Can you say a sentence in both forms, so our listeners can hear the difference?
Mohammad: Yes. For example, "to hamraah-e maa miaayi" means "You're coming with us," and "to hamraah-e maa miaayi?" means "Are you coming with us?"
Brandon: Got it. Now what else are we going to review in this lesson?
Mohammad: Let me see. How to say "to want to do something" in Persian.
Brandon: Oh yes. There was "We want to go to the seaside" in the conversation. How exactly did we say it in the previous lessons?
Mohammad: Well, we had the singular version, which is "I want" or "mikhaaham."
Brandon: Yes, I remember that we added the conditional form of the verb to it.
Mohammad: That's right. Now it's the same here. Only we change the tenses of the verbs depending on our pronoun.
Brandon: Okay, how is it changed for the pronoun "we"?
Mohammad: For example, for "We want to go", both "to want" and "to go" must be changed. They become "mikhaahim," and "beravim" or "berim."
Brandon: They end in the suffix "im." In the singular version, the suffix was "am."
Mohammad: That's right. And our second verb is "beravim" instead of "miravim."
Brandon: Which shows that it's in conditional form, right?
Mohammad: Exactly. And that's how it becomes "mikhaahim beravim."
Brandon: Which means "We want to go." Alright. There was one more thing that we learned recently.
Mohammad: Yes. And that is sentences with the word "must."
Brandon: What was "must" in Persian?
Mohammad: It's "baayad."
Brandon: And how do we make sentences with it?
Mohammad: We say "baayad," and add the rest of the sentence again in conditional form.
Brandon: This seems to be a very popular form in Persian! So what was the example in the conversation?
Mohammad: "baayad dars bekhoonam."
Brandon: Which means "I have to study." The rest comes between "baayad" and the verb.
Mohammad: Yes. And "dars mikhoonam" becomes "dars bekhoonam."
Brandon: Okay. Mission accomplished! And this is the end of the series, listeners! We hope you enjoyed it and found it useful.
Mohammad: And hope that we were able to cover all the basics you need.
Brandon: Remember you can always check the lesson notes to reinforce what you’ve learned, and also leave us a post at PersianPod101.com if you have any questions or comments.
Mohammad: We’re happy to help!


Brandon: Thanks for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you in another series. Bye!
Mohammad: "khodaahaafez!"